Pearl's Causal Ladder
Pearl frequently refers to what he calls a “causal ladder”, a hierarchy of three types of problems of increasing difficulty: (1) prediction (2) intervention, and (3) counterfactuals. If we wish to ascend the so-called ladder, and increase the range of causal questions we can answer, it is crucial to understand...
A friend recently asked me why I find bounded optimality interesting. Here’s why:
It is necessary to have a normative framework for how agents should act under computational pressure because this is what the real world is like. In the real world an agent should understand not to...
Language modeling is important for almost all natural language processing tasks: speech recognition, spelling correction, machine translation, etc. Today I’ll go over Kneser-Ney smoothing, a historically important technique for language model smoothing.
A language model estimates the probability of an n-gram from a training corpus. The simplest...